Category Archives: General Articles

October 19, 2019comment(0)

Why Do Some Mammals Lay Eggs?

What Exactly Defines An “Egg?”

Eggs are the reproductive body produced by most multicellular organisms. Its evolution is still considered somewhat of a scientific mystery. The earliest single-celled organism would have reproduced using binary fission, where the organism split itself into two. However, as evolution progressed, multicellular organisms had developed a specialized group of cells that was capable of cumulation with another organism, leading to the formation of the very first “egg”. It would have resembled soft-bodied eggs, such as the ones laid by modern fish.

Live Birth v/s Laying Eggs

Today, most animals are categorized into one of two types – oviparous and viviparous animals. In essence, oviparous animals lay eggs, while viviparous animals give birth to live young. Most higher vertebrates, such as birds, reptiles and amphibians, are oviparous. Mammals are exclusively viviparous, except for the platypus and echidna. Nevertheless, why do these organisms lay eggs despite being a mammal?

A platypus

A Relic from the Past

Platypus and the echidna belong to one of the three major orders of mammals called the Monotremes. The other two major orders are the placentals and the marsupials.

The platypus exhibits unusual characteristics for a mammal, such as a reptilian gait, the ability to lay eggs, and a venomous stinger on its webbed feet. These characteristics can be traced back to ancestors that diverged from the reptilian lineage to form mammals.

However, the ancestors of monotremes diverged again from the main mammalian lineage before mammals had evolved the placenta (which is the organ that develops during pregnancy). As a result, the monotremes such as the platypus still lay eggs, reminiscent of their reptilian ancestry.

Explore other exciting concepts from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to plant cell and animal cell only at BYJU’S. Alternatively, subscribe to BYJU’S YouTube video to explore everything biology.

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September 11, 2019comment(0)

Know The Success Formula To Crack UPSC Exam

So, you have decided to take the plunge and start preparing for UPSC Civil Service exams? Well, the best IAS Coaching center in your city can make a lot of difference in your preparation. However, the grunt work has to be done by you. Civil Service coaching centers can’t do everything. You need to find out the ideal approach to crack this exam.

What does it take?

Is it tough? Yes, it is one of the toughest exams in India. Is it impossible to crack if you are an average student? Well, if you are willing to put in the hard yards, you can make it happen. When you are new to the game, you might be confused about the things you should do and the steps you should avoid. So, it is wise to find out about the crucial routines that you can incorporate into your preparation. Continue reading to find out more about the methods you can use to become a Civil Servant.

Start on the right note

UPSC wants you to be aware of all the important events taking place in India and the world. They also want you to have the basic knowledge needed to interpret the consequences of these happenings. So, you should start tackling the syllabus on two fronts. You need to put in efforts and familiarize yourself with the basics of history, geography, economics, political science, and general science. The best way to do it is by studying NCERT books meant for students of classes 6-12.

Along with this, you need to start reading newspapers such as the Hindu and the Indian Express. If you start with this, you can rest assured that you will keep up with important events and gain the essential basic knowledge. If you start dealing with complicated course materials of the coaching institutes at this stage, you can mess up your progress. You will also end up creating many complications instead of gaining conceptual clarity.

Analyze the syllabus

Successful aspirants are always aware of all the intricacies and nuances of the UPSC syllabus. And you can’t expect to crack this exam unless you do the same. When you take a look at it, you will realize the sheer breadth of the topics covered. It might seem a lot to take in, but you shouldn’t forget that it is the same for all aspirants. So, it is more about how you react to the syllabus instead of its vastness in itself.

A schedule

You might be a fresh graduate or an experienced professional, UPSC has similar expectations from all. So, to become worthy of clearing UPSC CSE and become an IAS officer, you need to regulate your activities throughout the day. The time at which you study shouldn’t keep on changing from one day to another. UPSC CSE tends to reward those who stick through the tough times and keep fighting. Giving a routine shape to your preparation module matters more than everything else. You need to ensure that you study during specific hours every day without any exceptions.

Start writing mock tests

When you have developed a decent amount of knowledge about the course of study, you should start writing mock tests. All the reputed coaching institutes provide this facility, and you can join the program of the best IAS academy in your city. If your town doesn’t have high-quality institutions, you can also avail online mock tests to get the impetus in this direction. During this time, you can even start assessing the previous year’s question papers. You can check whether you can perform decently.

Stay motivated

You shouldn’t forget that the most prominent battles, whether personal or worldly, are won in your mind first. So, if you have started your preparation and things don’t seem under control, you need to persist with your efforts. You need to believe in your methods and continue working hard.

Rome wasn’t built in a day, and you can’t complete your preparation in four months. It is a journey, and growth is a gradual process. You need to accept it as a fact of life and continue your march towards success. Oftentimes, the difference between a topper and other aspirants is their confidence and not the number of hours for which they studied.

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August 27, 2019comment(0)

Different ways playing is important for learning

Playing is not just a leisure activity for children. It is a crucial aspect that has a significant impact on learning outcomes. It is the basic groundwork that sharpens the grasping power learning and enables children to learn fastest and with better understanding. Many schools have been motivated to install playing equipment for effective and interesting playground environment. There are many companies and outlets like https://www.sbagencies.com.au/, which provide equipment specifically designed to improve health and multiple skills in children. 

  • Types of play

Playing can be primarily described in two formats based on the structure and organization of the playing.

 

  • Structured play: This play is guided by an adult and takes place at a specific time and set space in an organized manner.
  • Unstructured play: It is a more spontaneous format where children initiate the play as per their interest. It boosts the imagination and innovation in children.
  • Importance of play in learning

 

There are many compelling reasons which highlight the importance of playing in the learning process and emphasis on the inclusion of different playing activities in classroom and playground environment.

 

  • Playing is the foundation of learning: While playing children say, here, and even shout many things and learn to make and practice sounds. Their interaction also improves imagination and vocabulary. This is the most initial method a child starts learning.
  • Simplify adults’ interaction with children: Not every child is comfortable in expressing his/her needs and desires. Playing helps the child to open up. If you are also assisting the play by intervening as and when required, it improves the comfort level between you and the child and helps in better communication.
  • Makes child spontaneous: The imagination of children is at its peak while they are playing. They often use a toy in many different ways. It helps in making their calls and be spontaneous with their moves. It is an important skill for overall personality build-up.
  • Helps in making choices: Generally, no child plays with a single toy. In schools, childcare centers, and at home there are many different kinds of toys to play with. This helps the child to make his/her own choice. They can process their liking and disliking making the final choice.
  • Helps in understanding space: While playing children do many things like moving around, jumping, balancing, etc. These activities give them a sense of space around them. They understand 
  • A better understanding of child: Playing also helps adults to better understand the body language of a child. This can be very helpful in understanding the child in case he/she is not able to express clearly. You can easily make out the different mood of the child.
  • Develop patience and understanding: This is in respect of both adults and children. During the play, there are times when two children would like the same toy or want to sit on the swing that is already occupied. It is a chance to teach them to have patience and peacefully wait or opt for a different toy. Also, adults get a better understanding of children’s behavior and learn to deal with them patiently.

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July 13, 2019comment(0)

How to Complete OSHA Training

Safety training is vital in most areas of construction or factories. The training not only helps to minimize accidents but it can also keep workers from being killed while on the job. Whether you need OSHA training is up to your employer. In some jobs, it can help with advancement. Employers have a legal responsibility in keeping a workplace free from hazards. It takes both the employer and the employee working together to know what kind of training is necessary?

While OSHA does set the standards for each industry, the specific training program is decided by the worksite or the employer. Each job site has its own unique set of requirements. The hazards are different for each job site. Therefore, the employer has to follow the correct OSHA standards. OSHA does not require specific training programs. Yet,  some job sites will have stricter requirements.

OSHA offers a ten-hour training class and a thirty-hour training class. You have two ways to take the training classes, in person or online. There are things that you should take into consideration when choosing a class. These are;

  1. Provider
  2. Accessibility
  3. Customer experience

When choosing a provider you want one that is credible and has a good reputation. Check over the curriculum to make sure that all the topics you need are covered in their classes.  The provider should also offer twenty-four-hour support seven days a week. The phone number for support should be toll-free.

You might even find one that has an online chat service available.  Support should be available for you no matter what time of day or night you are working on the class. The cost of training is another factor when choosing a provider. If one provider is offering the same course with the same curriculum, then you should look at the price. Take the one that is most cost-effective.

Accessibility is in how you access online OSHA courses. With most online OSHA training you enter their training class with a username and a password. The layout of the website should be one that is easy for you to navigate. The easier it is to navigate the easier it is for you to complete your class work. This makes it easier to complete your training faster.

After you have chosen the provider you want to use check out the reviews that other students have written about the online OSHA courses. Prior student’s testimonials will let you know that this is the provider for you. You can find comments in the forums, on other websites, or in blog comments.

Another factor that you should check out is what type of OSHA training do you need.  Do you need construction or just general industry training? Your employer can tell you which one you need. Construction work comprises new construction, repair work, or alteration. This also includes decorating and painting.

General Industry is anything not in construction. This can be healthcare, warehouses, distribution, retail, and manufacturing. While this gives you some idea of what you need, you have another option. This option is to check out the topics that were covered in the course you have chosen. See if they are things that you will encounter on your job.

The last thing to consider is doing you need the ten hour or the thirty hour OSHA training. The ten hour course is good for entry-level workers but supervisors or managers should take the thirty hour OSHA training class.

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January 16, 2019comment(0)

Understanding the gravity of the injury and deciding to act accordingly

First of all, it depends on the severity of the injuries that may be reported to the elderly person. If the prognosis of healing, certified by the Emergency Department or other health facility with certification powers, is not longer than twenty days, the crime of personal injury will be prosecuted only on complaint of part. In other words, because the attacker is punishable, the victim must be present at any police station to denounce the fact and, above all, to explicitly request the punishment of the person responsible by the State (this, in a nutshell, means ‘complain lawsuit’). It goes without saying that, if the lawsuit – in the three months following the fact (maximum deadline) – should not be presented, the guilty party would get away with the beating. In case of any emergency or incident you may always take the legal help from the personal injury lawyer toronto.

The various treatment and the related courses

This is if the lesions found remain below the 20 days of prognosis, without permanent consequences. If, on the other hand, this limit for recovery is exceeded or if particular aggravating circumstances are used, the committed crime would be open to prosecution. Which means that the assailant would be triedand, if found guilty, condemned by the state, even in the absence of a formal complaint – complaint from the elderly lady. That said two further considerations. First of all, the one who beat the old lady could have done so because in turn attacked with the purse, the umbrella or other blunt object: in this case, lawsuit or non-lawsuit, could plead for a legitimate defense, justifying his aggressive behavior.

The legal parameter that helps covering physical attacks 

Second. For some time, attacking an elderly person has become a more serious matter than the injury caused to a young person. 61 of the Penal Code, which contains what are called the common aggravating factors, i.e. applicable to all crimes, has introduced (at No. 5) an increase in sentence for the guilty party who has “taken advantage of a person also because of the age “. It follows that beating old people is highly inadvisable, however, today more than yesterday. Voluntary assault and battery is an offense punishable by imprisonment. To find out about the offenses and their sanctions, read the “Crimes ” sheet.

Distinguishing between intentional and unintentional assault

Voluntary assault should be distinguished from unintentional assault (read the “Involuntary injury and injury “form). Willful assault is defined as the act of intentionally inflicting violence on others. Indeed, in order to be able to speak of intentional assault, it is necessary that its author deliberately wished to cause injury to the victim – whether the act was premeditated or not. The law sanctions both physical violence and psychological violence. To find out more about the different forms of violence, read the “Physical Aggression “,” Threat “or” Moral Harassment “fact sheets.

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September 13, 2018comment(0)

Top Synthetic Urine: Is It Time to Make it Illegal?

Beating the system is always tempting. Imagine you can do everything you want without worrying about the consequences. The US Drug Enforcement Agency, local officials, as well as the people conducting drug testing, is very anxious about the rise in popularity of synthetic urine, a pee-like solution that helps people pass a drug test. Synthetic urine or fake pee is fabricated liquid that contains elements that you can find in normal human urine. It includes creatinine, amino acids, and uric acid proteins. You can buy these products from novelty stores and joke shops for $20 and up. Richland County Police Chief Dave Leitenberger said that products like synthetic urine are all over the market. It helps people, especially those who work in big companies, bypass the drug tests. According to Leitenberger, these products should be banned and restricted or at least penalize people that are caught using it to get a negative result in drug testing. The fact that it is sold freely and people can quickly get hold of it is like perpetuating the drug problem.

Drug courts process at least 3,000 drug cases per year and most case officers have little to no knowledge about how to deal with this kind of problem. Contraptions like plastic bottles, balloons, condoms, and tubes have been used to bypass the system. People are getting creative as time goes by. Today, people are using synthetic urine, detox pills and drinks, and even Whizzinator – a fake penis with a small attachment-like reservoir to hold clean urine or even synthetic pee. If you are caught using these products to pass a drug test while you are still under probation, it is considered tampering with the evidence and a Class III felony in most states in the country. The problem is, there are no legal ramifications if someone is caught using fake urine to pass a drug test. There are ways on how to detect drugs in our body, Companies who perform drug testing uses urine, hair, breathalyzer or blood sample. But because of the cost and effectiveness, the urine sample is the most popular among users.

Urine samples have two tiers. The first one is the send-off. Companies will collect the sample and send it to their affiliate laboratories. It usually takes 48 hours to get the result. The second tier is the instant test; it detects drugs in the sample by dabbing urine on a card.

Urine drug screen

Drug test screeners watch for tell-tail signs of authentic human urine. The most common warning sign is the temperature. Other indicators like the color of the sample, the amount and behavior of the individual are also observed. It is the collector’s responsibility to collect a real sample of the urine from the subjects. It is also their responsibility to check the integrity and authenticity of the sample. If they feel that the sample is contaminated or if they think that they are being fooled by having them checked fake urine, they can discard it. Visually, the best synthetic urine can match human urine, and it can also pass drug screening kits. It is not easy to bypass the system, but it is also not impossible. If the people using the fake pee can keep the sample at the right temperature, there’s a good chance that they can get away with it. It is not easy, but if they are successful, that would be a big blow for the law enforcement. If you think that drug testing is valuable to the safety of the population, then we should limit the use of fake urine to bypass the system. Examples of synthetic urine that are sold in the market today include plastic bottles with temperature strip readers, urine sample with hand warmer, three ounces of the synthetic urine sample with a rubber band. The synthetic urine sample should keep the temperature at 94 to 100-degree Fahrenheit.

As of August 1, 2015, at least 11 states have banned the use and sale of synthetic urine. It includes Illinois, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, South Carolina, Arkansas, and Virginia. Other states are still debating on the matter. Many blogs and website are selling fake urine sample and help people pass the drug test. Although these things are considered novelty items, most people take advantage of the fact that synthetic urines are not illegal. But let’s face it, as long as these things are sold in the market legally, there is no way law enforcement can force the public not to use it to get a negative result on drug tests.

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August 16, 2018comment(0)

Use A Friend’s Urine And Get THC Out Of Your System

Drug tests are never exciting and funny, especially if you enjoy using cannabis and you have to do it due to employment. However, you should stop your fears, because if you have a drug test coming up, there are ways that could help you cleanse your body from THC thoroughly.

Even though drug tests are not popular among workers and employees. The main problem is that they are becoming amazingly popular in professional areas, both as part of workplace testing and as a filter during the hiring process.

If you know that you’re facing a drug test in the future, the last thing that you should do is fear. There are numerous ways to cheat the test such as use your friend’s urine, getting synthetic urine, drinking detox remedies that will help you flush out weed out of your system.

How Do Drug Tests Function?

We have to start from the very beginning, which means that you have to understand how drug tests work before you start preparing. Most of them will look for metabolites, which are tiny by-products left behind after your system processed the THC. One of the principal metabolites is THC-COOH, which is fat soluble so it will remain in fatty tissues in your body.

We can differentiate three main types of drug tests: hair follicle tests, blood tests, and urine tests. Urine tests, or as some people call it urinalysis, is the most commonly used by employers because it is affordable and simple to conduct.

If you want to pass a urine drug test, you must have 50 ng/ml of THC-COOH and less. So we can say, that you do not have to be completely clear to pass a drug test.

How Long Weed Stays In Your System?

If you have in mind that THC metabolites feature half-life on every seven days, which means that every seven days it will reduce the amount of it by 50%. Therefore you will be able to completely free yourself from THC-COOH within one month, of course, if you do not use cannabis in the meantime.

Most cannabis users cannot spare a full month to get clean. Since most tests will be held with a little notice, it is difficult to cleanse your body from weed metabolites. The most common problem is that urine drug test can detect cannabis for up to three weeks after consumption.

If you were a daily cannabis user, the period could prolong for 90 days max. On the other hand, a hair follicle test can turn up positive for months after consumption, but it is not common due to expensiveness.

Check here to learn the history of marijuana usage.

We are talking here about general figures, which means that your organism could function differently than these common numbers. Weed can stay in your system for less and even longer depending on various factors such as:

  • How Often And How Much You Consume – Have in mind that more you use it, the more time you’ll need to cleanse yourself thoroughly. They will stick in your system for the most extended period, which could be a problem in the long run.
  • Body Fat – If you remember that we noticed that weed metabolites would store themselves in fatty tissue. Therefore, if you have high levels of body fat, you will be able to accommodate more metabolites, and you will need more time to cleanse yourself.
  • Metabolism Rate – Each has different metabolism rate because it depends on the food we eat, the amount of muscle mass, the exercise that we conduct, etc. Similar as we metabolize food at different rates, the cannabis is the same thing all over again. It is impossible to determine how fast is your body to reduce the amount of marijuana because it is an individual factor based on everything we’ve mentioned so far. If you want to calculate your mataboilsm rate, visit this particular website: https://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/bmr_calculator.htm.
  • Things You Consume – You probably know that there are numerous types of weed with different levels of THC. At the same time, there is a difference in the way you consume it. For example, edibles and concentrates feature higher levels of THC than flower. Vaporizing will provide you more THC to your body than casual smoking methods. At the same time, vaping, and eating edibles will leave more of weed metabolites in your organism than other consumption methods.

How To Flush Weed From Your System

  • Dilute Your Urine – By drinking extraordinary amounts of water, you will be able to increase the water intake of your urine which will reduce the number of metabolites. However, it is risky, and it won’t provide you with a positive perspective for passing.
  • Detox – The best thing that you can do is to avoid smoking or consuming anything that has THC and to conduct a natural detox session in a few weeks before a drug test. However, this means that your employer has told you the exact date for a drug test a few weeks before so that you can have plenty of time to increase chances of passing.

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