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Why Do Some Mammals Lay Eggs?

What Exactly Defines An “Egg?”

Eggs are the reproductive body produced by most multicellular organisms. Its evolution is still considered somewhat of a scientific mystery. The earliest single-celled organism would have reproduced using binary fission, where the organism split itself into two. However, as evolution progressed, multicellular organisms had developed a specialized group of cells that was capable of cumulation with another organism, leading to the formation of the very first “egg”. It would have resembled soft-bodied eggs, such as the ones laid by modern fish.

Live Birth v/s Laying Eggs

Today, most animals are categorized into one of two types – oviparous and viviparous animals. In essence, oviparous animals lay eggs, while viviparous animals give birth to live young. Most higher vertebrates, such as birds, reptiles and amphibians, are oviparous. Mammals are exclusively viviparous, except for the platypus and echidna. Nevertheless, why do these organisms lay eggs despite being a mammal?

A platypus

A Relic from the Past

Platypus and the echidna belong to one of the three major orders of mammals called the Monotremes. The other two major orders are the placentals and the marsupials.

The platypus exhibits unusual characteristics for a mammal, such as a reptilian gait, the ability to lay eggs, and a venomous stinger on its webbed feet. These characteristics can be traced back to ancestors that diverged from the reptilian lineage to form mammals.

However, the ancestors of monotremes diverged again from the main mammalian lineage before mammals had evolved the placenta (which is the organ that develops during pregnancy). As a result, the monotremes such as the platypus still lay eggs, reminiscent of their reptilian ancestry.

Explore other exciting concepts from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to plant cell and animal cell only at BYJU’S. Alternatively, subscribe to BYJU’S YouTube video to explore everything biology.

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General Articles

How to Complete OSHA Training

Safety training is vital in most areas of construction or factories. The training not only helps to minimize accidents but it can also keep workers from being killed while on the job. Whether you need OSHA training is up to your employer. In some jobs, it can help with advancement. Employers have a legal responsibility in keeping a workplace free from hazards. It takes both the employer and the employee working together to know what kind of training is necessary?

While OSHA does set the standards for each industry, the specific training program is decided by the worksite or the employer. Each job site has its own unique set of requirements. The hazards are different for each job site. Therefore, the employer has to follow the correct OSHA standards. OSHA does not require specific training programs. Yet,  some job sites will have stricter requirements.

OSHA offers a ten-hour training class and a thirty-hour training class. You have two ways to take the training classes, in person or online. There are things that you should take into consideration when choosing a class. These are;

  1. Provider
  2. Accessibility
  3. Customer experience

When choosing a provider you want one that is credible and has a good reputation. Check over the curriculum to make sure that all the topics you need are covered in their classes.  The provider should also offer twenty-four-hour support seven days a week. The phone number for support should be toll-free.

You might even find one that has an online chat service available.  Support should be available for you no matter what time of day or night you are working on the class. The cost of training is another factor when choosing a provider. If one provider is offering the same course with the same curriculum, then you should look at the price. Take the one that is most cost-effective.

Accessibility is in how you access online OSHA courses. With most online OSHA training you enter their training class with a username and a password. The layout of the website should be one that is easy for you to navigate. The easier it is to navigate the easier it is for you to complete your class work. This makes it easier to complete your training faster.

After you have chosen the provider you want to use check out the reviews that other students have written about the online OSHA courses. Prior student’s testimonials will let you know that this is the provider for you. You can find comments in the forums, on other websites, or in blog comments.

Another factor that you should check out is what type of OSHA training do you need.  Do you need construction or just general industry training? Your employer can tell you which one you need. Construction work comprises new construction, repair work, or alteration. This also includes decorating and painting.

General Industry is anything not in construction. This can be healthcare, warehouses, distribution, retail, and manufacturing. While this gives you some idea of what you need, you have another option. This option is to check out the topics that were covered in the course you have chosen. See if they are things that you will encounter on your job.

The last thing to consider is doing you need the ten hour or the thirty hour OSHA training. The ten hour course is good for entry-level workers but supervisors or managers should take the thirty hour OSHA training class.

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General Articles

Top Synthetic Urine: Is It Time to Make it Illegal?

Beating the system is always tempting. Imagine you can do everything you want without worrying about the consequences. The US Drug Enforcement Agency, local officials, as well as the people conducting drug testing, is very anxious about the rise in popularity of synthetic urine, a pee-like solution that helps people pass a drug test. Synthetic urine or fake pee is fabricated liquid that contains elements that you can find in normal human urine. It includes creatinine, amino acids, and uric acid proteins. You can buy these products from novelty stores and joke shops for $20 and up. Richland County Police Chief Dave Leitenberger said that products like synthetic urine are all over the market. It helps people, especially those who work in big companies, bypass the drug tests. According to Leitenberger, these products should be banned and restricted or at least penalize people that are caught using it to get a negative result in drug testing. The fact that it is sold freely and people can quickly get hold of it is like perpetuating the drug problem.

Drug courts process at least 3,000 drug cases per year and most case officers have little to no knowledge about how to deal with this kind of problem. Contraptions like plastic bottles, balloons, condoms, and tubes have been used to bypass the system. People are getting creative as time goes by. Today, people are using synthetic urine, detox pills and drinks, and even Whizzinator – a fake penis with a small attachment-like reservoir to hold clean urine or even synthetic pee. If you are caught using these products to pass a drug test while you are still under probation, it is considered tampering with the evidence and a Class III felony in most states in the country. The problem is, there are no legal ramifications if someone is caught using fake urine to pass a drug test. There are ways on how to detect drugs in our body, Companies who perform drug testing uses urine, hair, breathalyzer or blood sample. But because of the cost and effectiveness, the urine sample is the most popular among users.

Urine samples have two tiers. The first one is the send-off. Companies will collect the sample and send it to their affiliate laboratories. It usually takes 48 hours to get the result. The second tier is the instant test; it detects drugs in the sample by dabbing urine on a card.

Urine drug screen

Drug test screeners watch for tell-tail signs of authentic human urine. The most common warning sign is the temperature. Other indicators like the color of the sample, the amount and behavior of the individual are also observed. It is the collector’s responsibility to collect a real sample of the urine from the subjects. It is also their responsibility to check the integrity and authenticity of the sample. If they feel that the sample is contaminated or if they think that they are being fooled by having them checked fake urine, they can discard it. Visually, the best synthetic urine can match human urine, and it can also pass drug screening kits. It is not easy to bypass the system, but it is also not impossible. If the people using the fake pee can keep the sample at the right temperature, there’s a good chance that they can get away with it. It is not easy, but if they are successful, that would be a big blow for the law enforcement. If you think that drug testing is valuable to the safety of the population, then we should limit the use of fake urine to bypass the system. Examples of synthetic urine that are sold in the market today include plastic bottles with temperature strip readers, urine sample with hand warmer, three ounces of the synthetic urine sample with a rubber band. The synthetic urine sample should keep the temperature at 94 to 100-degree Fahrenheit.

As of August 1, 2015, at least 11 states have banned the use and sale of synthetic urine. It includes Illinois, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Texas, South Carolina, Arkansas, and Virginia. Other states are still debating on the matter. Many blogs and website are selling fake urine sample and help people pass the drug test. Although these things are considered novelty items, most people take advantage of the fact that synthetic urines are not illegal. But let’s face it, as long as these things are sold in the market legally, there is no way law enforcement can force the public not to use it to get a negative result on drug tests.

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Why You Should Enroll Your Child In Preschool

The young mind is similar to a sponge. To give your child a headstart on their learning journey, you should always consider enrolling them in preschool. Preschool isn’t a mandatory step for children; however, those who take part in this phase are often in a better shape academically. Here are a few of the many compelling reasons as to why you should register your child into preschool.

Students Are Able To Merge Work With Play

Early schooling helps to develop the curious mind of a young child. The structure of preschool is formed around the idea of learning by play. The classroom setting is typically a colorful environment that is equipped with toys and an array of activities. Because creativity usually dominates the mind of children at this stage, they are able to better retain information and important details when it is presented in a fun manner. These learning activities will not only help to develop mathematical and literacy skills, but they will also help students develop hand-eye coordination and motor skills. Learn more about how learning by play is beneficial to children.

Preschoolers Get A Headstart On Learning

While preschool may look as if it is all fun and games, there is actually a lot of brain development taking place in these classrooms. By the time your child graduates from this phase, he will be able to identify letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and common sounds. This makes the transition to kindergarten much easier on both the child and their future instructor. Read about how early learning will set your child up for life-long success.

Preschool Helps Strengthen Social Skills

Every child needs to be in the company of other children. While in preschool, students are taught manners such as sharing and playing well with others. Under the teacher’s supervision, students will learn practical conflict resolution skills making it easier to connect with others in outside settings as well as formal schooling.

Preschool Settings Are Quite Structured

At such a young age, most children have little to no structure or responsibilities. By enrolling your children into a preschool they will be able to establish daily routines. You can look online for any pre school west jordan ut

Preschool Helps Children To Develop Emotionally

Much of the preschool curriculum is designed around manners and cooperating with others. Instructors have a gentle way of teaching their students tactics to deal with disappointment without becoming too upset. Instead of throwing fits or crying, students are taught good decision-making habits that are beneficial to their self-esteem.

While there is so much that can be taught at home, preschool drastically eliminates pressure among parents and caretakers. In fact, sometimes it is more effective to remove a child from their home environment to get the best results. The earlier you expose your child to different learning experiences, the more advanced and receptive they will be in the future.

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How To Improve Your Research Skills

How often do you think to yourself – why is X so good at writing or how does he create such high-quality content? Well, you are in the right place. At the end of this article, you will have an idea or many ideas on how to be the best. Just note that at the core of writing, is research. That is all you need to be good at. Whether you are looking for Danforth iPhone repair stores or the best massage parlor, this article is your foolproof guide to being the best.

Here is how you do it:

  • Create a content research checklist

You need a comprehensive list of the entire research process. Instead of looking through the internet for everything, you will have a specific item which you need to research on. The simplest way of doing this starts from the formulation of the research question and then determine exactly what you need.

  • Get your content research toolbox

Which tool will help you get the necessary content when you start researching? The truth is, there is a lot of information on the internet but, you have to make sure you have to know where to look for the information. Use your list of research topics above to determine the best toolbox for every task.

In this case, your best tool is Google. Through a Google search, you should have a list of top ideas to use. Skimming through the top ten results will help you determine if the information you entered on your search box is relevant to your research topic.

You should also look out for the existence of paid content, and the autocomplete suggestions pointing to the long tail keywords.

  • Wolfram Alpha

This is a cool educational search engine that makes it easy for you to find all data on different areas of study. You can use it to gather data into detailed content.

  • Industry publications

You can also get a lot of information from industry publications. While other people consider print dead, it is an important source of information. The publications, even the ones published online are of great importance for anyone looking to make the highest quality content.

  • Polls

Are you looking for a way of making your research a little more realistic and verifiable, run a poll on social media platforms like Twitter. You can always adjust the length of the poll to make sure that you get more real raw data. Information obtained from polls ensure that you have great content. Polling is, in essence, a form of research and, it is a good replacement for the traditional polling where you would have to dish out questionnaires and fail to get enough responses.

  • Surveys

For more detailed information, you may want to consider platforms for a survey like Survey Monkey. Such surveys give in-depth data for your research. Have a predetermined topic in mind and ask enough questions for adequate information.

  • What else is out there?

You can get more information about or related to your topic of discussion by checking out related searches. You should also go through information on the downloadable resources, and also, the people behind the search and the content.

Other ideas include:

  • Create a schedule of things to do
  • Use Wikipedia at the beginning of your research
  • Mine bibliographies for relevant topics
  • Lastly, deal with one piece on your checklist after the other, update your content, and ask for help always.
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Bad Impact when We often Scold Children in Public

If you are emotional and want to scold children, remember the following reviews. A child is a holy person. The child is the most beautiful gift. The child is a gift of God. How many couples want the presence of a child? Well, we who have been blessed with one child or more should have equipped themselves with the science of educating children. Science is not only useful for us as a parent, but also for our baby. One of the provisions we can do is to read a lot of parenting books. Well Parents, do not scold children and do not compare children with others. Why should not we scold the child? Besides it is not good for child development, here are some of the effects of scolding the child.


The child will feel Minder

If your child is often angry in the presence of others, then the main attitude that they often experience is to become inferior. The child will probably experience prolonged trauma. When his childhood he often you angry and you snapped in the face of many people. Although sometimes people around perceive these actions as ordinary actions. But for children, it can make his soul depressed.

Children will be afraid to Socialize

Maybe you unknowingly rebuked, “You stupid kid!”

What is the effect of the anger on the child? He will feel confident that he is a really stupid person. Because his parents had also to judge that he was a stupid child. This will certainly have a negative impact on the development and interaction of children later.

When he grows up, the assumption that he is stupid will remain attached to him. In the end, the child will have a minder attitude. Continuation of the attitude of the inferior is the child will be difficult to socialize with people outside. It is because of the lack of confidence that has existed since he was little.

It will get worse if parents do not play a role in the formation of the child’s identity. If a parent lets the child continue to live in his confinement, then he will be hard to socialize. Socialization is very important in a life. Imagine, man will always depend on other human beings. In any case, he will always need help from others, either directly or indirectly. Therefore, it takes a good social attitude to facilitate him in the process of socializing.

Being Selfish and Temperament

Another consequence of child-beating behavior in public is that the child becomes a selfish and individualist individual. This happens because the behavior of rebukes will also lead to the child’s hard attitude. If you do so constantly, the child will become a rebellious and violent individual. His belief in about slowly vanished so that he became arrogant and indifferent to the surrounding.

One of the behaviors that children often do is to imitate their parents’ habits. When he is accustomed to the anger of his parents, he will imitate the same action. To brother, sister, or to peers. Even for trivial matters, he is not awkward to do so. Children do not hesitate to perform such actions in public. Because he reflects on the actions of his parents who often do the same in public.…

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Importance of Education for all without Exception

Education is the most important thing in our lives. Every human being deserves and hopes to always develop in education. Education, in general, means a life process in developing each individual. So being an educated person is very important. The first education we get in the family environment, school environment and community environment.


Education in the Family Environment

A beloved child will love his family. So the child will feel that the family needs it. Because the family feels as a source of strength that builds it. Thus will arise a situation that helps each other, mutual respect. That’s what really supports the development of children. In families that play a maximum role in growth, and child development is the parent. In a family, environment self-esteem develops because it is appreciated, accepted, loved, and respected as human beings. That is why we become educated people in the family environment. Parents teach us from childhood to appreciate others.

Education in School Environment

While the school is secondary education. Teachers as media educators to provide knowledge in accordance with the ability they have. The role of teachers as educators is a role of giving help and encouragement. In addition, the tasks associated with disciplining children. It is so that children can have a sense of responsibility for what he does. Teachers should also make sure that the lessons they provide are always sufficient to attract children.

Education in the Community Environment

In addition, the role of the community environment is also important for the child. This means giving us a picture of how we live in society. Thus when we interact with society then they will judge us. In this Era of Globalization young generation can have to develop the knowledge they can. So as not to lag in the development of the times. That’s the importance of being an educated person in the Family, School, and Society environment.…